Essay from Mannonova Shakhnoza

ORIGIN OF THE QAQAN DYNASTY

Abstract: This article provides information on the importance of historical sources and the essence of the works of Kagan historiography in covering the history of the Kagan Khanate. The opinions of various authors of the source studies of the Kagan khanate on the factual information presented in the work are presented.

Key words: Kagan khanate, source, Fargona valley, "Muntakhab al-Tawarikh", "History of Shahruhi", "Tarihi Jadidayi Tashkent", "Tarihi Fargona", A. Fedchenko, V. Khanikov.

After the independence of Uzbekistan, the study of the history of the Uzbek statehood, the study of the history of the states that existed in our country from ancient times and the Middle Ages gained important scientific and political importance. It is one of the main tasks of all historians. As for the Khanate period, the history of the Khanate period is an important period in the history of Uzbek statehood.
Kagan Khanate, as a developed region in the 18th-19th centuries, has always attracted the attention of scientists. In general, many tourists entered Fargona Valley and recorded the available information about this area in their few works.

The history of the Fargona valley of the XVIII-XIX centuries is the legacy of many researchers. Depending on the time they lived and created, the sources can be conditionally divided into several periods: 1. Works of palace historians; 2. The works of local authors that reflect the history of the khanate; 3. travelogues and memories of Russian and European tourists, soldiers, ambassadors and merchants who visited the khanate during the XVIII-XIX centuries; 4. Archive documents.

The first "Qoqon scholars" are local historians who wrote works on the history and culture of Qoqon. These works are also considered important written sources because they were created using different sources, using the language of events and participants.

The history of the Kagan Khanate is organized primarily on the basis of primary sources, that is, historical works created in ancient times. Among such sources, the first work on the history of the Khanate of Qakhan is the work "Muntakhab al-Tawarikh" written by Khoja Muhammad Hakim Khan Tora Khaqandi. The author is a descendant of Makhdumi Azam, one of the representatives of the major sects in Central Asia. Hakim Khan Tora's father, Masum Khan Tora, was one of the most respected figures in the khanate, like his grandfathers. He married the daughter of Khan of Qakan Norbotabi and from this marriage Hakim Khan Tora was born (1221 Hijri). Masum Khan held the post of Shaykhulislam during the reign of Tora Olim Khan and Umar Khan, and was considered an advisor to the Khan in the palace.

One of the characteristic features of Muntakhab al-Tawarikh is that it contains original information not only about the Kagan Khanate, but also about the situation of Russia, Turkey, Iran and Iraq in the first half of the 19th century. such as cities, their inhabitants, trade relations in this city and the participation of Central Asian merchants in it. Tora sometimes does not give an objective assessment of Muhammad Alikhan's personality. According to SH. Vahidov, Hakimkhan Tora was one of the initiators of Amir Nasrullah's march to Kagan in 1842.

After the establishment of the Khanate, one of the valuable sources for us is "Tarikh Jadidai Tashkandi", written by Muhammad Salih Tashkandi. Muhammad Salih wrote "Tarikh Jadidai Tashkand" for 25 years. He wrote some parts in 1305 AH (1887-1888 AD). The author's manuscript of Muhammad Salih's work is a rare copy
The manuscript is stored in the treasury of the Institute of Oriental Studies named after Abu Raikhan Beruni of the Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan under the number 7791. The copy copied from the manuscript of the same author in 1936 by the secretary Nabirohoja ibn Said Khoja in two covers (NN 11072, 11073) and copied by the hand of the researcher of this institute Abdulla Nasirov. copies (iiv.I 5732) also exist.

In addition to the lithographic copy of the work "Ibratul-khavoqin", which became famous in science under the name "History of Shahrukhi" or "Tarihi Shahrukhiya", one of the major historical sources, there are 12 copies. The description of these copies was not mentioned by T.K. Besembiev in a few research works and scientific research works and in his book.

The work "History of Fargona" is also one of the important sources in the study of the history of the Khanate of Kagan. The work was published in 1916 by the historian scholar Ishaq Khan Junaidullo ogli Ibrat. The work describes a great period from the rise of thousands to the conquest of the Khanate by the Russian Empire. Information about the military campaigns of each Khan of Qagan, socio-political situation, Qazgolans, the Russian invasion, its consequences and the largest cities of the Khanate is given. "History of Fargona" is a historical work of great importance for us. The work was published in Tashkent in 1991 in the "Heritage" series.

In the study of the history of the Khanate, historical documents, in other words, the works of Russian tourists, ambassadors and historians, play a key role. Most of such documents are now kept in state archives.

Most of the documents related to the history of the Khanate are from Turkestan and Russian scientists G. Potanin, D.N. Romansky, V. Khanikov, L.F. Kostenko, A. Maksheev, V. Belyaminov-Zernov, V.V. Grigorev, A.P. Khoroshkhin, N. Pantusov, A. Nurekin, N.O. Petrovsky, It is possible to mention the works of M.A. Terentev, A.F. Mindendorf, A. Fedchenko, A. Kun, V.V. Nalivkin. S.S. Soodanbekov, Yu.Lunyov, N.Terletsky, Scott S, Levay and other scientists whose works have been published abroad, Russian researchers D.V. Vasilev, V.V. Korneev, A.I. Dubinina from the scientists of near and far foreign countries have written about the political, social, economic and cultural aspects of the khanate in their works. who covered his life, his colonial period.

In conclusion, it can be said that there are many problems in the issues of Qakan source studies. In order to study and edit them, it is necessary to know the Persian-Tajik language well, to be aware of the science of using manuscripts. In addition, it is appropriate to use foundation documents, documents and information stored in the archives of Uzbekistan, Russia, Kazakhstan and Tajikistan in the deep and comprehensive study of the history and cultural life of the Kagan Khanate, ethno-cultural processes in it. Otherwise, new works and studies will continue to emerge based on the information provided by previous authors. In addition, the history of the Khanate of Kagan was widely covered in the works of various genres written in Eastern Turkestan in the beginning of the 19th and 20th centuries, as well as in the historiography of Bukhara and Khiva. It is necessary to study the history of the khanate in a holistic and comprehensive manner, involving these data in the research.

LITERATURE AND SOURCES USED:
R.Kh. Akbarov. "History of the Khanate of Kagan" Instructional manual. Fargona, 2015.
Shodmon Vahidov. "History writing in the Kagan Khanate". Tashkent Academy, 2010.
3. Ikramjon Kuzikulov "History of the Khanate of Kagan". Namangan publication, 2014.
4. Mirzo Olim Makhdum Khoji. History of Turkestan" Tashkent "New Century Generation" 2009.
5. Vahidov Shodmon Husenovich"" Development of historiography in the Kagan Khanate at the beginning of XIX-XX centuries"""""Tashkent-1998.
6. Niyaz Muhammad Khaqandi "Ibratul Khavaqin" Tashkent"""Turan zamin zia" 2014
7. Fargona State University. Kokan source studies and historiography. Fargona -2010.

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