Synchronized Chaos’ Second July Issue: Like a Flowing River

Flowing blue river with rapids over some rocks and grass on either side. Trees and hills in the distance, a few clouds in the sky. Dales of the U.K.
Image c/o Petr Kratochvil

Our regular contributor, prose writer Jim Meirose, invites Synchronized Chaos readers to review his two upcoming books. He will send PDFs to people who will provide at least 50-75 word blurbs in their blogs or on Amazon/Goodreads.

About his books:

Audio Bookies (Being published by LJMcD Communications)     – Audio book creators take on recording a book which begins absorbing them into its bizarre fictional world. 

Game 5 (Being published by Soyos Books)  –  Very experimental piece involving the efforts of residents to rejuvenate a community in decline. 


Now, for this month’s issue, Like a Flowing River.

This month’s contributions reflect how life may have ups and downs, smooth and rough patches, but mostly just keeps going.

Mahkamov Mahmudjan’s piece gives us our title. Mahkamov reminds us that life is like a flowing river, where we have influence but don’t control everything.

Nearly still river water under the Brooklyn Bridge at dawn or sunset. Sky is blue at the top and pink near the horizon, the bridge is lit up with lights and the city in the distance is lit up as well.
Image c/o Jean Beaufort

Jessica Barnabas Joseph reminds us that becoming who we are can be a journey. Mashhura Ziyovaddinova illustrates that the journey of life matters as much as our destinations. Wazed Abdullah presents a rhythmical ode to the constant ticking of time.

Alex Johnson’s poetry collection Flowers of Doom, reviewed by Cristina Deptula, explores times of change with a mixture of awe and repulsion.

Hillol Ray describes the stability and comfort he finds in his personal and intimate spirituality and how it’s developed and informed by his mixed-race heritage. Michael Robinson speaks to the solace he has found in his faith over many years. Stephen Jarrell Williams’ work addresses being lost and found again through faith and the love of family.

Muslima Rakhmonova reflects on the support and encouragement she receives from her family and on how families can both keep children secure and empower them to build their futures. Abdamutova Shahinabonu’s short story reflects the deep love and respect between fathers and their children, even as the children become young adults and leave to pursue their dreams.

Rizwan Islam evokes the joyful spirit of family celebrations of his birthday. Nigar Nurulla Khalilova offers up a son’s lament over separation from his mother. Habibullayeva Madinabonu grieves over the passing of her mother. Abrieva Umida expresses deep respect and caring for her mother. Amimova Zebiniso rejoices in the love of her family. O’roqboyeva O’roloy G’ulomovna expresses her tender love for her mother.

Stylized vintage painting of a light-skinned woman and boy in red, brown, and burgundy robes and coats which billow out behind them as they fly through the sky scattering red poppies on the land and mountains below them.
Image c/o Karen Arnold, original art by Evelyn de Morgan

Brian Barbeito finds mythic beauty in Mother Nature, in industrial areas and even a truck collision, as well as in spring flowers and colorful fungi. Naeem Aziz outlines the life cycle, diet, and ecology of the praying mantis. Turdaliyeva Muxarram conveys the simple and colorful joy of flowers. Azimjon Toshpulatov laments the passing of the warm and flower-strewn spring. Aliyeva Matluba fashions images out of natural seeds and materials while Abdulazizov Dovudbek’s home economics paper reminds us when we should let go of stored food. Daniel De Culla crafts a myth about the creation of fish and the constellation Pisces.

Tuyet Van Do’s haiku points to the uncanny mysteries of nature and the paranormal. Nahyean Taronno continues his ghostly tale of trapped spirits and children in a haunted manor. Audrija Paul illuminates the destructive power of rain during a flood and crop-destroying storm. Praise Danjuma evokes the wildness and majesty of nature with a piece on a large and scary night-flying bird. Avery Brown presents a moment of narrative tension as futuristic cowboy characters in his novel Blood and Loyalty skirt one potential conflict to race towards another.

Lidia Popa’s piece reminds us of the mystery and wonder of poetry. Dilnura Rakhmanova poetizes about love, writing, and tulips. Kylian Cubilla Gomez’ photography captures moments of color, surprise, and interactions with the natural world. Isabel Gomez de Diego’s photography draws on themes of nature, history, and the wonder of childhood. Kande Danjuma reclaims the joy and wonder of her childhood. J.D. Nelson peers at life like a child glancing up at labels they can’t quite make out on a top shelf in his monostich poetry. Emeniano Somoza likens the moon to a lonely child drifting through the treacherous school hallways of space.

Luis Berriozabal speaks to loneliness, aging, and the power of words in his poetry. Duane Vorhees’ poetry probes themes of sensuality, romance, writers’ block and the timeless Mideast conflict.

Dilnoza Xusanova outlines the literary contributions of Erkin Vahidov to Central Asian and world literature. Abdunazarova Khushroy poetizes on the beauty of the Uzbek language. Ibrohim Saidakbar highlights the humane spirit and literary legacy of Central Asian writer Gafur Gulam. Otaboyeva Ominakhon examines Mark Twain’s use of satire in his literary works. Noah Berlatsky spoofs errors in proofreading in a humorous piece.

Silhouette of a person in profile looking off to their left. Inside the silhouette are stars and a nebula.
Image c/o Mohamed Mahmoud Hassan

Ziyoyeva Irodakhon reviews the contributions of great Uzbek teacher and writer Abdulla Avloni to Central Asian and world scholarship and pedagogy. Salomova Dilfuza makes suggestions to help people optimize their learning. Guli Bekturdiyeva offers best practices for how educators can design syllabi. Abdusamatova Odinaxon offers recommendations on the best use of interviews as a tool for sociological research. Burikulova Shakhnoza remembers an inspirational teacher who motivated her to set high goals and work towards them. Sobirjonova Rayhona praises the dedication of her favorite teacher.

Axmatova Shakzoda outlines the unique opportunities and hardships of student life. Aziza Karimjonova Sherzodovna highlights the accomplishments of Uzbek students and scholars and the greatness of the nation.

Adiba Shuxratovna reviews Hossein Javid’s drama “Amir Temur” and outlines how the play highlights the nation-building work of Amir Temur through depicting both political and domestic moments of his life. Aziza Saparbaeva depicts a dramatic moment in the life of medieval Central Asian leader Tamerlane. Marjona Kholikova outlines the accomplishments of various historical Central Asian military and political leaders.

Adiba Shuxratovna’s poetry extols the virtues of the new Uzbek constitution and its respect for human rights. Mamadaliyeva Aziza celebrates Uzbekistan’s rich history and its present and future promise. Eshbekova Xurshida Anorboyevna evokes the mythical beauty and grandeur of Samarkand while Dr. Reda Abdel Rahim reminds the world of the archaeological treasure of Egypt’s Royal Tombs of Tanis and encourages us to preserve and study them. Graciela Noemi Villaverde expresses her pride in Argentina’s history and flag.

Ruxzara Adilqizi’s poetry celebrates her love for nature, her partner, her country, and her heritage. Mahbub Alam flies into the sky at sunrise on the wings of love. Elmaya Jabbarova draws on classical references to convey the intense experience of having a lover stare into one’s eyes. Maja Milojkovic finds gentle and poetic love in a garden. Mesfakus Salahin speaks to the emotional and spiritual union of a couple in love.

Silhouette of two lovers in front of the gray moon at night with stars and galaxies off in the distance.
Image c/o George Hodan

Lilian Dipasupil Kunimasa speaks to the futility of hiding one’s emotions. Usmonova O’giloy whispers poetry about the gentle grace of her dreams. Paul Tristram crafts vignettes of human experience from a large-hearted and compassionate place. Taylor Dibbert’s poetic speaker points out a detail that speaks to the depth of his mourning for his departed dog and thus the depth of the love they shared.

Alan Catlin’s poetry reflects the fragmented thoughts of memory and grief. Vernon Frazer adorns paper with shapes and shades of color and words in various fonts at precarious angles. Mark Young’s images play with shape and color and seem to almost represent various objects.

Nosirova Gavhar relates how music can serve as medicine for the human spirit. Sayani Mukherjee describes the sensations and images she experiences listening to classical music.

Joe Byrd’s new novel Monet and Oscar: The Essence of Light, excerpted this month in Synchronized Chaos, gives us a look at the groundbreaking Impressionist artist through the eyes of his gardener.

Sterling Warner evokes atmosphere, time, place, and memory with his poems on the Midwest, fungi, flora, and fauna, and the overzealous self-diagnosis made possible through pharmaceutical commercials.

"Life is just a game, play" written in chalk on a blackboard. Blackboard is framed in wood and resting on a wooden table.
Image c/o Gerd Altmann

Christopher Bernard critiques neoliberal philosophy for breaking down social order with its emphasis on one’s rights to the exclusion of one’s responsibilities to respect others.

Dr. Jernail S. Anand urges us to set aside extravagant philosophizing and simply live our lives. Santiago Burdon satirizes those who carry their principles beyond the point of reason with his piece on a vegan vulture.

Heather Sager takes joy in gentle, quiet moments of middle age, even as she feels off kilter and knows her body and life are slowing. Roberta Beach Jacobson’s haiku expresses observations on human nature taken from ordinary and surprising moments of everyday life.

Hillol Ray wonders about the future of humanity, if our compassion and solidarity can grow and develop alongside our technology. Mashhura Usmonova decries people who obsess over their phones to the detriment of flesh and blood relationships.

Faleeha Hassan urges others to recognize her common humanity although she’s in a traditional Muslim head covering. Bill Tope’s essay traces the changing attitudes towards the LGBTQ community in America over the past 60 years. Z.I. Mahmud outlines how Amrita Pari illustrates the isolation and longing of a queer woman in a modern city in her novel Kari. Jacques Fleury reviews a production of “Witch” at Boston’s Huntington Theater and reflects on how witches can represent those treated as “others” by modern society for various reasons.

Overturned car on fire, bent telephone pole, smoggy and cloudy sky, broken pavement and dirt covered in soot, buildings bombed out and barely standing. Photo is mostly gray and slightly surreal.
Image c/o Kai Stachowiak

Mykyta Ryzhykh speaks to the horrors of war and the destruction of innocence and the environment. Gozalkhan Samandarova highlights the indiscriminate destruction often caused by war and urges humans to work for peace. Bill Tope’s story highlights the senseless terror of a school shooting by portraying an incident from a child’s perspective.

Ana Bogosavljevic reminds us that even great pain and evil will not last forever and can be outlasted with patient goodness. Shaxzoda Abdullayeva takes joy in her current life and her hopes for the future, as David A. Douglas celebrates the power of community and kindness to overcome despair.

Essay from Otaboyeva Ominakhon

Exploring the Satirical Genius of Mark Twain’s Works

Otaboyeva Ominakhon

Farg‘ona Davlat Universiteti, Xorijiy til va adabiyoti yo‘nalishi , 

Ingliz tili va adabiyoti fakulteti talabasi

Abstract: This article explores the satirical genius of Mark Twain’s works, including his novels, essays, and speeches. Using literary analysis, the article examines how Twain used satire to expose and critique societal issues such as racism, imperialism, and greed. Through a close reading of key passages in works such as The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and The War Prayer, the article demonstrates how Twain’s use of irony and humor served to challenge dominant ideologies and promote social change. Ultimately, the article argues that Twain’s satirical approach remains relevant today as a tool for critical thinking and social commentary.

Key words: satirical genius, Mark Twain, literature, humor, irony, social commentary, American culture, writing style, satire techniques.

Introduction: Mark Twain is widely regarded as one of the most significant American authors of all time. His works are renowned for their wit, humor, and biting social commentary. In particular, his satirical writing has been praised for its ability to expose the absurdities and hypocrisies of American society during his time.

In this article, we will explore the satirical genius of Mark Twain’s works. We will examine how he used satire to expose societal issues such as racism, imperialism, and corruption. We will also delve into his unique writing style and the techniques he used to create his satirical masterpieces.

Twain’s use of satire was not limited to a single work or genre. Rather, it was a recurring theme throughout his entire body of work. His most famous novels, such as The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, both contain elements of satire within their narratives.

One example of Twain’s use of satire can be found in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. The novel is set in pre-Civil War America and follows the journey of a young boy named Huck Finn as he travels down the Mississippi River with an escaped slave named Jim. Throughout their journey, Huck encounters various characters who represent different aspects of Southern society at the time.

Twain uses these characters to highlight the hypocrisy and racism that was prevalent in Southern society during this period. For example, one character named Pap represents the worst aspects of white Southern culture – he is an abusive alcoholic who is quick to blame black people for all his problems. By contrast, Jim represents the humanity and dignity that was often denied to black people during this period.

Another example can be found in Twain’s short story “The War Prayer.” Written in 1904 during the height of American imperialism, “The War Prayer” criticizes America’s involvement in foreign wars by depicting a scene where a preacher leads a congregation in a prayer for victory in battle. As the prayer progresses, the true horrors and consequences of war are revealed, exposing the hypocrisy of those who pray for victory without considering the human toll.

Twain’s unique writing style was also a major factor in his ability to use satire effectively. He often used irony, sarcasm, and exaggeration to make his points. He was known for his use of colloquial language and dialects, which helped to bring his characters to life and make them more relatable.

In addition, Twain was a master of storytelling. He knew how to capture his reader’s attention and keep them engaged with his narratives. He often used humor to defuse tense situations or to make difficult topics more approachable.

Finally, Twain’s satirical works continue to resonate with readers today because they address universal themes that are still relevant today. Issues such as racism, corruption, and imperialism are still prevalent in modern society, making Twain’s critiques just as relevant now as they were during his time.

Overall, Mark Twain’s satirical genius is evident in both the content and style of his works. His ability to use satire to expose societal issues in a humorous yet poignant way is what sets him apart from other authors of his time. By examining his use of satire in various works such as The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and “The War Prayer,” we can gain a greater appreciation for Twain’s unique contributions to American literature.

Satire is a literary device that uses humor, irony, and exaggeration to criticize and expose the flaws of individuals or society. It is often used to bring attention to social or political issues and can be found in various forms of literature, including novels, essays, plays, and poetry.

Mark Twain is one of the most renowned American writers who used satire extensively in his works. He was known for his sharp wit and humorous approach towards societal issues such as racism, greed, corruption, and hypocrisy.

In Twain’s most famous work, “The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn,” satire is used to critique the institution of slavery. Through the character of Huck Finn, Twain exposes the absurdity of a society that condones slavery. The book also satirizes the hypocrisy of religious institutions that claim to espouse Christian values while supporting slavery.

In “The Gilded Age,” Twain critiques the excesses and corruption of post-Civil War America. He uses satire to ridicule the greed and materialism prevalent in society at that time.

Twain’s use of satire was significant because it allowed him to express his social criticisms in a humorous way while also making his message more accessible to readers. His works were not only entertaining but also thought-provoking and influential in shaping public opinion on important issues.

Overall, Mark Twain’s skillful use of satire made him one of the most important literary figures in American history by challenging societal norms through humor and wit.

His novels, including “The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn” and “The Adventures of Tom Sawyer,” are famous for their satirical elements. Satire is a literary technique that uses humor, irony, and sarcasm to criticize and expose human follies and vices.

In “The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn,” Twain uses satire to criticize the hypocrisy and racism prevalent in society. The novel follows Huck Finn, a young boy who runs away from home to escape his abusive father. Along the way, he meets Jim, a runaway slave, and together they embark on a journey down the Mississippi River.

One of the most prominent satirical elements in the novel is Twain’s portrayal of Southern society. Through characters like Aunt Sally and Miss Watson, Twain exposes the hypocrisy and double standards prevalent in society. For example, Miss Watson preaches about Christian values but owns slaves, while Aunt Sally complains about the immorality of gambling but is willing to bet on anything.

Another satirical element in “Huckleberry Finn” is Twain’s treatment of race relations. While many critics have accused Twain of perpetuating racial stereotypes through his portrayal of Jim as a superstitious and uneducated character, others argue that he uses this characterization to expose the absurdity of racist attitudes.

In “The Adventures of Tom Sawyer,” Twain uses satire to critique the romanticization of childhood innocence. The novel follows Tom Sawyer, a mischievous boy who lives in a small town on the Mississippi River.

One satirical element in the novel is Twain’s portrayal of school. Through characters like Becky Thatcher and Injun Joe, Twain exposes the flaws in traditional education systems that prioritize rote memorization over critical thinking.

Another satirical element in “Tom Sawyer” is Twain’s depiction of adult authority figures. Through characters like Aunt Polly and Judge Thatcher, Twain exposes the hypocrisy and inconsistency of adult behavior. For example, Aunt Polly punishes Tom for playing hooky from school but then rewards him for his bravery in saving Becky from Injun Joe.

Mark Twain’s novels “The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn” and “The Adventures of Tom Sawyer” are masterful examples of satirical literature. Through humor and irony, Twain exposes the flaws in society and human nature, making his works timeless classics that continue to resonate with readers today.

Mark Twain, an American writer and humorist, was known for using satire to criticize societal norms, political issues, and cultural beliefs during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Satire is a literary technique that uses irony, sarcasm, and exaggeration to expose and criticize human vices or shortcomings.

One of Twain’s most famous works that uses satire to critique societal norms is “Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.” Twain used the character of Huck Finn, a young boy from Missouri, to expose the hypocrisy of slavery in the South. Through Huck’s journey on the Mississippi River with Jim, a runaway slave, Twain highlighted the brutal reality of slavery while also ridiculing the attitudes and beliefs held by white people towards black people at the time.

In “The Adventures of Tom Sawyer,” Twain used satire to poke fun at the rigid social structures of rural America. The character of Tom Sawyer represents a rebellious spirit that challenges traditional authority figures like teachers and parents. Through Tom’s actions, Twain criticized society’s strict adherence to rules and regulations that stifle individuality.

Twain was also highly critical of politics during his time. In his essay “The War Prayer,” he satirized American imperialism by depicting a church service where people pray for victory in war without considering the suffering it would bring to both sides. He also criticized corruption in politics through his novel “The Gilded Age,” which portrays politicians as greedy and selfish individuals who are only interested in personal gain.

Finally, Twain used satire to comment on cultural beliefs such as religion. In “Letters from Earth,” he portrays Satan as a sympathetic character who questions God’s actions on Earth. Through this work, Twain challenged traditional religious beliefs by suggesting that God’s actions may not be just or fair.

In conclusion, Mark Twain was a masterful satirist who used humor to criticize societal norms, political issues, and cultural beliefs. His works continue to be relevant today as they challenge readers to question their own beliefs and values.

Mark Twain is considered one of the greatest American writers of all time, but his use of satire in his works has been the subject of criticism and controversy. Satire is a literary technique that uses humor, irony, or exaggeration to criticize or ridicule human behavior or institutions. Twain’s use of satire was often aimed at exposing the flaws and hypocrisies of American society during his time.

One of the main criticisms of Twain’s use of satire was that it was too harsh and offensive. Some critics felt that his portrayal of African Americans and other minority groups in his works was racist and demeaning. For example, the character Jim in “Adventures of Huckleberry Finn” is often seen as a stereotypical depiction of a black man.

Another source of controversy surrounding Twain’s satirical works was their portrayal of religion. In “The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn,” for example, Twain mocks the hypocrisy and small-mindedness he saw in organized religion. This led some religious groups to condemn Twain’s work as blasphemous.

Despite these criticisms, many people today still recognize the value and importance of Twain’s satirical works. They argue that by exposing the flaws and follies of society through humor and satire, Twain helped to bring about positive change and progress in American culture. His work continues to be studied and celebrated for its insights into human nature and its ability to provoke thought and discussion about important issues.

Mark Twain is a renowned literary genius who continues to captivate and inspire readers today through his wit, humor, and satirical observations of American society. His contribution to American literature has been significant and enduring, with his works remaining relevant even after more than a century since their original publication.

The brilliance of Twain’s satirical genius lies In his ability to use humor and irony to expose the flaws and shortcomings of American society. Through his works, he highlighted the hypocrisy of the ruling class, the injustices faced by marginalized groups, and the absurdities of everyday life. His satire was not only witty but also incisive, revealing deep-seated societal issues that were often overlooked or ignored.

One example of Twain’s enduring relevance is his novel “Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.” Published in 1884, the novel remains one of the most controversial books in American literature due to its use of racial slurs and its portrayal of African Americans. However, despite these controversies, the novel continues to be read and studied today for its insightful commentary on race relations in America.

Twain’s satirical genius can also be seen in his short stories such as “The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County” and “The War Prayer.” In these works, he uses humor to expose the greed and foolishness of people while also critiquing war as a senseless human endeavor.

Twain’s relevance is not limited to his satire alone. He was also a master storyteller who wrote engaging stories that continue to captivate readers today. His use of vernacular language gave his works an authenticity that resonated with audiences then as it does now.

Furthermore, Twain’s legacy has been sustained by modern writers who have been influenced by his work. His influence can be seen in contemporary authors such as George Saunders, David Sedaris, and Ta-Nehisi Coates who have all used satire and humor to critique American society.

In conclusion, Mark Twain’s satirical genius continues to be relevant and brilliant in American literature. His works remain a testament to his enduring legacy and continue to captivate readers with their incisive commentary on American society. Twain’s use of humor, irony, and vernacular language set him apart from his contemporaries and cemented his place in the literary canon. As we continue to grapple with issues of race, class, and social justice in America, Twain’s works remain a powerful reminder of the importance of satire as a tool for social critique.


1. Clemens, S. L. (1884). The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. Chatto & Windus.

2. Fishkin, S. (1995). Was Huck Black? Mark Twain and African-American Voices. Oxford University Press.

3. Gribben, A. (2011). Mark Twain’s Adventures of Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn: The Original Text Edition. University of California Press.

4. Hirst, K., & Olmsted, W. M. (2006). Mark Twain and the Art of the Tall Tale: An Analysis of his Short Fiction. McFarland.

5. Howard, J., & Gates Jr, H.L (1990). Who Invented ‘The Nigger’?: Uncle Tom’s Cabin and the Invention of Minstrelsy”. American Literature 62(3), 459-489.

6. Kaplan, J., & Rogers, K.W (2010). Satire in Mark Twain’s The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn: A Case Study for Critical Thinking Skills Development in High School English Language Arts Classrooms”. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy 54(1), 36-44.

7. Kemble, E.W (1914). Fifty Years as a Slave; or The Story of my Life in the Southern States of America by Harry Smith”. Journal of Negro History 1(2), 198-199.

8. Krause, S.T (2009). Satire and Irony in Children’s Literature: An Analysis of Mark Twain’s The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn”. Journal for Learning through the Arts 5(1), 1-18.

9. Langer, J., & Kellogg, R.T (1987). Cognitive Constraints on Information Retrieval from Literary Texts: The Role of Genre”. Poetics 16(1-2), 15-33.

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Essay from Salomova Dilfuza

Young Central Asian woman posing at a diagonal angle. She's got slightly red/purple hair and a sparkly purple and black blouse.
Salomova Dilfuza

Seven secrets of effective learning

   In order to be successful and competitive, one must always work on oneself and educate oneself. In this process, effective methods developed for the successful assimilation of knowledge will help. What is the secret of effective knowledge acquisition?

  Secret 1 – what is the secret of effectively using the first 20 minutes of studying very difficult material, not overstraining the brain and ensuring mastery of the type of training in the next minutes?

   A person can only concentrate at a high level during the first 20 minutes.

   After half an hour, as a result of the division of attention, the reception of information slows down to 60%, after 45 minutes to 40%. Therefore, knowledge with a high level of complexity becomes more and more difficult to understand after an hour.

  Secret 2 – daily victory in class …

 Make it a habit to evaluate your progress in class and after class. Such an approach will help you eliminate negative aspects of the learning process, increase learning motivation and independence.

   Identify your shortcomings and try to overcome them. Do this exercise regularly. Then you start to control yourself and make mistakes less.

   Secret 3 – connecting theory with practice.

    Theoretical knowledge is strengthened and improved by practice.

    Sometimes some words are familiar to us, but we don’t understand what they are talking about.

   We cannot determine the meaning of the word. Are you familiar with this problem? What does our brain do with the information we don’t use?

   That’s right, it puts it in a ‘remote archive’ so as not to waste energy.

   The third secret to successful learning is to gain knowledge and skills through direct experience. This is exactly what it means to be ‘shy and lazy’, which means that the most important thing is to consciously apply the theoretical knowledge we have learned.

  Secret 4 – imagination.

   It’s no secret that imagination gives great opportunities to perceive information. However, it has one major drawback – it cannot store the received data for a long time. The brain’s attention filtration filters out unnecessary information to save brain energy.

   American psychologist George Miller developed a theory called “Miller’s wallet” and later it became known as “7+_2”. The summary of the rule is that a person’s short-term memory cannot remember more than 9 objects.

Miller’s wallet

   The short-term memory or a kind of “wallet” in the human brain can hold no more than “money” of “seven coins” of different values ​​at the same time.

   If they are more than seven or nine, the brain intuitively divides them into groups of 5 to 9. There is an inextricable connection between the efficiency of our work and the number 7.

    Making a piano according to the 7+_2 rule helps to save time, solve various problems, and especially manage processes more effectively.

   Miller’s experiments show that a person’s short-term memory, on average, remembers nine two-digit numbers, eight multi-digit numbers, seven letters of the alphabet, and five one-syllable words.

    Secret 5 – to remember information for a long time

      If you need to remember for a very long time:

the first repetition after the initial reading;

the second repetition 20-30 minutes after the first repetition;

the third repetition 1 day after the second;

the fourth repetition 2-3 weeks after the third;

the fifth repetition should be done 2-3 months after the fourth repetition.

   Thus, the effective repetition method allows you to store four times more new information in memory than the traditional method.

Essay from Mashkhura Usmonova

Effects of mobilephones in society

Due to the fact that we live in the age of technology, today many people prefer online communication instead of face-to-face meetings.
Firstly, one of the biggest reasons for this is our smartphones and the fact that people spend so much time on social media these days.
for example, they waste time reading posts on channels in Telegram groups and as a result they do not have time for other household chores and plans.

Secondly, there are mobile phones from adults to young children and parents do not give enough time to their children.  As an example, young children watch cartoons or videos on YouTube channels from morning to night this is a leading them to grow up unkind and aggressive.

In general, socialize meetings are not popular among people today because of telephones, which in the future may cause psychological diseases such as depression, loneliness, and longing.

Usmonova Mashkhura Shukhratovna

Essay from Dilnoza Xusanova

Illuminated life and creative path of Erkin Vahidov

Erkin Vahidov, a prominent representative of Uzbek literature, a famous poet, translator, dramatist and community leader, created a very blessed work. Hero of Uzbekistan, People’s Poet of Uzbekistan Erkin Vahidov was born on December 28, 1936 in Altariq district of Fergana region in the family of a teacher. His childhood coincided with the Second World War. His father Chuyanboy Vahidov returned from the Second World War with severe injuries and died in 1945. A year later, her mother Roziya Khan Vahidova also passed away. Young Erkin, separated from both father and mother, is brought up by his uncle Karim. Arriving in Tashkent – the capital, the poet diligently and enthusiastically continued his studies. The young poet, who became a famous and honored poet of our nation with his works, developed love and passion for books and literature very early. 

Older Central Asian man, nearly bald, with a black cap and black and white checkered tie and white shirt seated at a desk by a window.

He took an active part in the literary circle organized by the poet Ghairati and began to learn the secrets of creativity. Erkin Vahidov’s first collection was published in 1961 under the name “Morning Breath”. This collection sharpened his talent and potential, fueled his passion for poetry. After that, one after the other, “My songs are for you”, “Heart and mind”, “My star”, “Shout”, “Lyrics”, “Epic written on the wall”, “Department of Youth”, “Lighthouse”, “Epics” “, “Love”, “Current Youth”, “Living Planets”, “Suffering” were published. The deep meaning, pure expressions, and wonderful images in a number of poems of the poet, who sensitively feels the magic of folk literature, such as “Morning Plate”, “About Humility”, “Bulak”, “Love”, “Mother Earth” reflect found.

Erkin Vahidov worked as an editor, editor-in-chief, director at the “Yosh Gvardiya” publishing house, at the literary and art publishing house named after Gafur Ghulam, and as the editor-in-chief at the “Yoshlik” magazine. He contributed to the publication of many high-quality works. At the same time, he also wrote great epics such as “Exclamation”, “Epic Written in Palatka”, “The Place of the Sun”, “Rebellion of Spirits”. It is difficult to imagine the work of the poet without his work as a translator. He skillfully translated the works of many famous world poets into Uzbek. In particular, the poems of the Russian poet S. Yesenin translated by E. Vahidov, the work “Faust” by the German poet Goethe were big events in Uzbek literature.

Erkin Vahidov collected his works created over a period of more than fifty years and created a four-volume collection entitled “Trade of Love”, “Poetry World”, “The river of life” and “Exclamation of the heart”. It is not wrong to say that these works are a mirror and reflection of the people’s life. Erkin Vahidov, who gained attention in Elda, did not only write poems and epics, but also created works in other genres. He also tried his hand at dramaturgy and created dramas such as “The Golden Wall” and “Istanbul Tragedy”. Our beloved poet Erkin Vahidov’s services to the country and literature were taken into account, and he was awarded the Order of “Great Merit” and the title of “Hero of Uzbekistan”.

Erkin Vahidov, the beloved child of our people, great creator, People’s Poet of Uzbekistan, died on May 30, 2016 at the age of 79.

Central Asian teen girl with a floral dress with a white collar and long dark hair. She's sitting next to a stack of Uzbek patterned hats.

Essay from Abdusamatova Odinaxon

Young Central Asian teen girl with long black hair and brown eyes. She's in a white collared blouse and leaning to the right. She's outside by a tree.
Abdusamatova Odinaxon

Interview method in sociological research

Abdusamatova Odinaxon
2nd year student of the Faculty
of History of Fergana State University

Abstract: This article discusses the use of interviews as a research
method in sociology. It explains the differences between structured and unstructured interviews, and highlights the advantages and limitations of using this method. The article emphasizes the importance of careful design and awareness of potential biases in order to generate reliable and valid data.

Overall, this article provides a useful overview of the interview method for sociologists seeking to understand individual experiences and perspectives.
Keywords: interviews, research methods, sociology, structured
interviews, unstructured interviews, advantages, limitations, biases, reliability, validity, individual experiences, perspectives.


The interview method is a widely used research technique in sociology that involves asking questions to individuals or groups of people in order to gather information about their beliefs, attitudes, experiences, and behaviors. Interviews can be conducted in various forms, such as face-to-face, over the phone, or through online platforms.
In sociological research, interviews are often used to explore social phenomena and understand the perspectives and experiences of individuals or groups within a particular context. This method enables researchers to gain in-depth insights into the social world and uncover new knowledge that may not be obtained through other research methods.

Interviews can be structured, semi-structured, or unstructured. Structured interviews involve asking a set of predetermined questions in a specific order. Semi-structured interviews allow for some flexibility in the questions asked and the order in which they are asked. Unstructured interviews involve an open- ended conversation where the interviewer allows the respondent to lead the

The interview method has several advantages in sociological research. It allows researchers to obtain rich and detailed data that can be used to develop theories and hypotheses. Interviews also enable researchers to build rapport with respondents and gain their trust, which can result in more honest and accurate responses.
However, interviews also have some limitations. Respondents may provide biased or incomplete information, and the interviewer’s presence may influence the responses given. Additionally, interviews can be time-consuming and resource-intensive.

Overall, the interview method is a valuable tool in sociological research that can provide unique insights into the social world. By carefully designing and conducting interviews, researchers can gather rich and meaningful data that can inform our understanding of social phenomena.

There are several types of interviews that sociologists may use in their research. One type is the life history interview, which involves asking a respondent to recount their life experiences in detail. This type of interview can provide valuable insights into how individuals understand and navigate their social worlds over time.
Another type of interview is the focus group, which involves bringing together a group of individuals to discuss a particular topic or issue. Focus groups can provide insights into group dynamics and how individuals interact with one another in social settings.

Interviews can also be used in combination with other research methods, such as surveys or observation. For example, a sociologist may conduct interviews with individuals to gather qualitative data about their experiences, while also using surveys to gather quantitative data about the prevalence of certain attitudes or behaviors.

In order to conduct effective interviews, sociologists must carefully design their questions and consider factors such as the demographics of their respondents and the context in which the interviews will take place. They must also be aware of potential biases and take steps to minimize them.

Overall, the interview method is a powerful tool for sociologists seeking to understand the social world. By using interviews in conjunction with other research methods, sociologists can gather rich and nuanced data that can inform our understanding of social phenomena and contribute to the development of new theories and hypotheses.

Literature Review
The use of interviews in sociological research has been widely discussed and debated in the literature. Some scholars argue that interviews are essential for understanding the subjective experiences of individuals and the meanings they attach to their social worlds (Gubrium & Holstein, 2002). Others caution that interviews can be biased and may not accurately reflect the experiences of
marginalized groups (Lloyd & Smith, 2013).

One approach to addressing these concerns is to use a variety of interview techniques and to carefully consider the context in which interviews are conducted. For example, life history interviews can provide a rich understanding of an individual’s experiences over time, but may be time- consuming and difficult to analyze. Focus groups can provide insights into group dynamics, but may be influenced by the dominant voices in the group.

Another important consideration is the role of the interviewer in shaping the responses of the interviewee. Researchers must be aware of their own biases and be careful not to influence the responses of their participants (Bloor et al., 2001).
Despite these challenges, interviews continue to be a valuable tool for sociologists seeking to understand the social world. By carefully designing their questions and considering the context in which interviews are conducted, researchers can gather rich and nuanced data that can inform our understanding of social phenomena and contribute to the development of new theories and hypotheses.

Furthermore, interviews can provide a platform for marginalized
voices to be heard and can help to challenge dominant narratives and power structures (Lloyd & Smith, 2013). By giving voice to those who are often excluded from mainstream discussions, interviews can contribute to more inclusive and diverse research.

Overall, while interviews have their limitations and challenges, they remain an important tool for sociological research. By using a variety of techniques and being mindful of their own biases, researchers can gather valuable data that can inform our understanding of the social world and contribute to the development of more inclusive and diverse theories.

As an AI language model, I do not have personal opinions or beliefs. However, I can provide some additional points to consider in the discussion of interviews as a tool for sociological research.
One potential limitation of interviews is the potential for social desirability bias, where participants may alter their responses to present themselves in a more favorable light. This can be mitigated by creating a comfortable and non- judgmental atmosphere and assuring participants of confidentiality.

Another challenge is the potential for researcher bias, where the interviewer’s own beliefs and assumptions may influence the questions asked and the interpretation of responses. Researchers can mitigate this by being aware of their own biases and using techniques such as reflexivity to critically examine their own assumptions.

Finally, interviews may not be suitable for all research questions or populations. For example, some individuals may not feel comfortable discussing certain topics or may have difficulty expressing themselves verbally. In these cases, other methods such as surveys or focus groups may be more appropriate.

Overall, interviews can provide valuable insights into the social world and contribute to more inclusive and diverse research. However, researchers must be mindful of their limitations and challenges and use appropriate techniques to gather reliable data.
Additionally, the interpretation of interview data can also be a challenge. Researchers must carefully analyze and code responses to identify patterns and themes, and ensure that their interpretations are grounded in the data rather than their own assumptions.

Another consideration is the time and resources required for conducting interviews. Interviews can be time-consuming and expensive, particularly if a large sample size is needed. Researchers must carefully plan and budget for interviews to ensure that they are feasible and effective.

Finally, ethical considerations must also be taken into account when conducting interviews. Researchers must obtain informed consent from participants and ensure that their privacy and confidentiality are protected. They must also be sensitive to issues of power dynamics and avoid exploiting or harming participants in any way.

In conclusion, interviews can be a valuable tool for sociological research, but they also have limitations and challenges that must be carefully considered. By using appropriate techniques and being mindful of ethical considerations, researchers can gather rich and insightful data that contributes to a deeper understanding of the social world.

Furthermore, the type of interview used can also impact the data collected. For example, structured interviews with closed-ended questions may limit the depth of responses and miss important nuances, while unstructured interviews with open-ended questions may lead to inconsistent data and difficulty in analysis.

Another challenge is the potential for interviewer bias, where the interviewer’s personal beliefs and attitudes may influence the responses of participants. Researchers must be aware of their own biases and take steps to minimize their impact on the interview process.
Moreover, the cultural context in which the interview takes place can also affect the data collected. Different cultures may have different communication styles and expectations, which can impact how participants respond to questions and how researchers interpret their responses.

Finally, technological advancements have led to the use of online interviews, which can overcome some of the challenges of traditional face-to-face interviews such as geographic limitations and cost. However, online interviews also have their own limitations such as potential technical issues and difficulty in establishing rapport with participants.

Overall, interviews are a valuable tool for sociological research, but researchers must carefully consider their limitations and challenges and choose appropriate techniques to gather insightful data.

In conclusion, interviews are an important method for collecting data in sociological research. They can provide valuable insights into people’s experiences, attitudes, and beliefs. However, there are several challenges that researchers must consider when using interviews, including the potential for interviewer bias, limitations of different interview types, cultural context, and technological limitations. To overcome these challenges, researchers must
carefully select appropriate interview techniques and take steps to minimize bias and ensure the validity and reliability of their data. Overall, interviews can be a powerful tool for sociological research when used appropriately.


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    Qualitative Research Interviewing. Sage Publications.
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Poetry from Dilnura Rakhmanova

Young Central Asian woman with long dark hair, a thin white sweater, earrings, and a red and green floral wreath in a building with curlicue wallpaper and black chairs stacked in the background.
Dilnura Rahmanova

To hold the arms of my destiny
Find me
Looking at the mountains, even on a rainy way,
Bring a bouquet of tulips.

You are the person the artist drew on my forehead!
Love me with your soul over and over again
My lips are red, the first time you see them,
Bring a hearty white tulip.

we know each other
Maybe a stranger
But  fate crossed our paths.
Having smiled from happiness in your hug,
Bring the happiest tulip.

Write one poem
from your heart
Let your words touch my heart.
So much...
Standing proudly in front of the flower holder,
Bring me your life!

Dilnura Rakhmanova was born on March 20, 2003 in the village of Madir, Khanka district, Khorezm region. Currently, she is a 3rd year student of the Faculty of Philology of Urganch State University. His poems are published in the anthology “The song of Uzbek homeland” in “Amazon” publishing house of USA, “Ezgu so’z” newspaper, “Inja San’at” international electronic magazine, “Teacher” scientific and methodical magazine, “Turkestan” newspaper of Azerbaijan. , site, Kenya’s “The Mt. Kenya Times”, Bangladesh’s “Red Times” international newspapers, Pakistan’s “Sindh courir” artistic and scientific site and stories in the Turkish “Artshop” publishing house, the anthology “Türkçe’nin ındakï Uzbek sesi”, “Hilol” It was published in the Republic of Artists Collection. His poems and stories have been translated into English, Turkish, and Azerbaijani languages. Participant of “Navqiron Gujumlar” poetic duel. “Student of the Year 2022” University stage “The most active creative student of the year” nomination. She is the recipient of the “Glotur life excellence” medal of the international scientific magazine “Glotur life”. The author of the poetry collection “Bakhtmunchaq”. sold to 26 countries of the world. “JustFiction! The first collection of stories and essays “Ways of life and dream” (“Ways of Life and Dream”) was published in English in the “Edition” publishing house. She is a graduate of the Shine Academy for Girls. She has a membership certificate of the international organization “Juntos por las Letras” of Argentina, “Iqra” of Pakistan. and Indonesia “Asih Sasami”, Egypt’s “Creativity Forum For Culture, Arts and Peace”, India’s “All India Council for Technical Skill Development” is a member of international organizations. Scholarship of the regional governor. Participant of international forums and conferences.