Essay from Jorayeva Marjona Baxtiyor

Central Asian teen girl with long dark hair, brown eyes, and white collared shirt with buttons leaning to the right.
IN SOCIOLINGUISTICS - LINGUISTICS AND
 SPEECH CULTURE
 
 Abstract: This article describes one of the important aspects of sociolinguistics, that is, the fact that the Uzbek language has a unique and attractive speech. You can learn about the field of linguistics and the importance of dialectisms used in our society today.

 Key words: language, sociolinguistics, limited and non-limited words, dialectism, internal structure of language, manners, culture of behavior.

Sociolinguistics is one of the sciences that shows the charm and uniqueness of each language. Sociolinguistics refers to the extent to which the language's complexity and the beauty of speech are needed. Having one's unique words and impressive speech indicates the spirituality of this society and the breadth of people's worldview. That's why we should promote the beautiful speech of people around us, at work, study, on the streets. The Uzbek language is a rich language, it can be used effectively and in its place, it is possible to use other words instead of one word or to use one word in different meanings. Knowing how to use words in their place and correctly shows that a person is a master of words.

 Words in our language are divided into limited and non-limited words. That is, unlimited words are widely used in the common language and are understandable to everyone. For example: bread, house, notebook, sun...

 Restricted words are used within a certain social group and a certain region, and include words that are not understandable to the general public. "Words with a limited scope are also called inactive vocabulary or inactive words. Such words can be divided into the following groups:

1) Territorially limited words (dialectism);
2) Socially limited words.

Dialectisms are mostly understood by people living in a certain region and not so much understood by people living in other regions as the regional usage words they say. In a word, one word in the literary language can be said to stand in different regions. People use words that they think are easy and close to them. For example, the word ant used in literary language is morcha in Samarkand and Bukhara regions, and karindja in Khorezm; in the literary language, it is called the word egg, in Kipchak dialects - lighthouse, in Khorezm - egg. The use of words with different names in different regions is related to the social origin, lifestyle, and life experiences of that people.

 Socially limited words belong only to a certain social group of people. For example, we can cite words related to a certain science or profession. Words such as hemis, credit system, module, which are currently used in the education system, are not used in other fields, and even if they are used, they have a different meaning. Sociolinguistics is a science related to both linguistics and ethics. Above, we considered the aspects related to linguistics.

 Etiquette, culture of speaking, interaction between the speaker and the listener, and increasing the effectiveness of speech in the speech of people are the research sources of sociolinguistics.

 Linguistics studies the internal structure, interactions, and types of meaning of the language, while sociolinguistics studies the unique aspect of the language in all its aspects. That is, every member of the society should know his national language, be able to speak beautifully and impressively, and be aware of the etiquette of his people. After all, language is a mirror of the nation. "As the enlightener Abdulla Awlani said: language and literature are the main life of every nation that shows its presence in the world. Losing the national language means losing the soul of the nation."

 Yusuf Khos Hajib, a famous poet of his time, spoke about the importance of language in the chapter "Language Etiquette" of "Kutadgu Bilig":

"He considered a fluent language to bring a person to light.
A person is honored by the language, and a person is happy because of it.

The language makes a person worthless, the earth breaks his head.
The tongue is like a lion lying in a cage.

Oh, the caged (insidious) savage will eat your head.”

 In short, sociolinguistics is a field that not only teaches people language units, but also improves human spirituality and forms perfect human qualities. There are many useful aspects of this field in society, and it is recommended to study them more deeply and effectively.

Jorayeva Marjona Baxtiyor qizi was born on October 18, 2003 in Termiz district of Surkhandarya region. Since she is very interested in literature, she also writes poems and articles.The first poem was published in January 2024 by the German publishing house "Globe_edit" in the book "My Sun is My Mother".In addition, her poems and articles have been published in many prestigious magazines. For example: Just fiction, Mount Kenya Times, The Diaspora Times, Classico Opine. In these magazines, we can see her poems "Enjoy the river of knowledge", "In the sky of my dreams", "The beauty of his sister", "The castle of happiness..." and articles "The family is a fortress of love and happiness" , "One step to the goal".

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