Essay from Mirzaliyeva Zarinakhan

Activities of Jan Hus in the Czech Republic in the                         XII- XV centuries

Madaminov  Tulqinjon  Mamayunusovich

Kokan State Pedagogy Associate professor, teacher

Mirzaliyeva Zarinakhan

Student of the Kokan State Pedagogical Institute named after Mukimi

Annotation . This article analyzes the activity of Gus Jan, the national hero of the Czech people, the ideological leader of the Reformation, against the violence of the Germans in the Czech Republic, against the corruption of the upper-class Catholic clergy, and in spreading the church’s land ownership to an extraordinary extent.

Keywords: Husinets,church, 1390 , Prague, exploitation, indulgence, Czech, Wyclef, sacred writing, Neopalus, 1412.

   In the Czech Republic, Jan Hus, a priest and professor at the University of Prague, was a representative of the advanced classes of Czech society in the spirit of religious and national reformation. Jan Hus was born in 1369 in the village of Husinets in a simple peasant family. Of course, every mother wants her child to grow up mature. Therefore, at the age of 13, Jan Gus’s mother took her son to another city to study in Prachatice, where he studied for 4 years. Later, in 1386, Jan Hus went to Prague and in 1390 he became a student of the universities there. In 1402, the most important period in the life of Jan Hus begins – he becomes the priest of the Bethlehem church. His responsible attitude, his desire to convey the truth to the people was manifested in everything, combining work at the university with teaching, he gained momentum in his work. Thanks to his zeal, the Czech king Vaclav changed the charter of the University of Prague in 1409, giving Jan Hus the role of leading the university. Jan Hus’ socio-political and religious views grew up under the influence of the famous English reformer John Wyclef. In particular, in Wyclef’s vision, he promoted the virtues of Christianity, the existence of the papacy, the local church and their luxury. Thus Wyclef’s views in the Czech Republic through Jan Hus manifestation be starts [1]_ In this period in the Czech Republic oppression and exploitation of the Catholic Church increased. During the Hundred Years’ War, the popes transferred their tyranny to Germany, Poland, the Czech Republic, and Hungary. Each year, the Czech Republic sent taxes in various formats to the papal court. There were especially many priests selling indulgences. Most of the taxes collected in the Czech Republic were sent to the papal treasury. At this time, most of the clergy in the Czech Republic were not native Czechs, but immigrant German priests and monarchs who owned land in the Czech Republic. In a word, the peculiarity and complexity of the revolutionary struggle of the Czech state at the end of the 15th century and the beginning of the 16th century came from this. In fact, this social movement was directed at the medieval Catholic Church, which was to a large extent the embodiment of foreign tyranny. This movement is related to the work of Jan Gus. But he surpasses Wyclef in several matters. He understood that the church was tormenting the people. Just as our ancestors did not want to enlighten our people. Just as Jan Hus fought against the Russian Empire, he also fought against the Church’s rules in the Czech Republic. Gus’s relationship with the papacy becomes strained and irreconcilable. He comes out with a sharp criticism against the trade in indulgences, against the expansion of the church by landowners, and against the increasing extortion of money by priests. The professor said that the prayer should be performed in the native language, in Czech, and the land should be used by the state to spend promote does [2]_ He did not call for the overthrow of the feudal system. Basically, it limited the oppressive tyranny of the church on the population. The activity of Jan Gus was aimed at exposing the shortcomings of the clergy, condemning the luxury and wealth of the church.

The work of Jan Hus was opposed by the archbishop of Prague, and then by the pope. Gus is forbidden to worship, deprived of the positions of rector and professor. The Church accused him of blasphemy and summoned him to the court of Constantine in 1414. Emperor Sigismund gives Hus the label of “protector” to protect him from the Church. But Gus is imprisoned as soon as he arrives in Constantinople. The Church does not even want him to speak, and condemns him to be burned at the stake as a heretic. And Sigismund did not want to go back and help Gus, betraying his word. Because at that time the prestige of John Hus was higher than the emperor and the papacy. Thus, on July 6, 1415, Jan Hus was burned at the stake in one of the squares of Constance.

The death of Jan Hus caused deep anger in the Czech people. The “heretical communities” that emerged deepened Gus’s teachings and began to see him as a reformer of the church. Punishments by the government begin to be applied against these Huschilars. In this regard, the Huschis revolted in Prague on July 30, 1419. Prague to this uprising priest Jan Zhelivskyi[3] leadership did _ As a result of the uprising, King Wenceslaus is effectively deposed and he flees the country. In his place, his younger brother, Emperor Sigismund, will become the heir to the Czech throne. Sigismund crushed the Guschilars. But because of Sigismund’s wicked behavior, his open hatred of Gus, and his open communication with the German feudal lords, the Czechs did not even hear his name.

In conclusion, it should be said that, despite the defeat of the Husci, their war was important in the history of the Czech Republic. The largest peasant movement at the end of the Middle Ages, foreign Germans, the first church reformation in the Czech Republic was the activity of the Hussars, an uprising against the medieval Catholic Church. Our ancestors Russia to the empire as he fought , Jan Hus also fought against the church’s order in the Czech Republic . He is a person who reformed the church and society in the Czech Republic as to the tarikh sealed.


  1. Gutenberg VI People dvijeniya v gorodax Italii v XIV- early XV century . M.- L. 1958
  2. History krestyanstva v Yevrope . Epoxa feudalism . T. 1.2. M. 1985 -86 g.
  3. Kotelnikova LA ” History average vekov “V 4- t.-M., 1968 g.
  4. Lozinsky ST – ” History Papacy “-M., 1986.

[1] Semyonov VF ” Middle centuries history “-T. 1973

[2] Semyonov VF ” Middle centuries history “-T. 1973

[3] Gutenberg VI Narodn y e dvijeniya v gorodax Italii v XIV- early XV century . M.- L. 1958