Essay from Norsafarova Nilufar

Young teen Central Asian girl with reading glasses, a pink turtleneck sweater, and a black and yellow checkered coat.


Abstract: This article discusses the introduction of modal words in the modern Uzbek literary language and the difference between similar and different words, documents. In addition to works of art, examples of them are given.

Key words: word groups, modal word, introductory word, feedback, relationship, morphology, syntax, phrase, sentence, analysis, punctuation, communication.

Note: This article discusses the modal words and introductory words in the current Uzbek literary language, their similarities and differences. Examples of them are given in the use of works of art.

Key words: word groups, modal word, introduction, reasoning, relationship, morphology, syntax, vocabulary, sentence, analysis, punctuation, communication.

Annotation: V dannoy state rassmatrivayutsya modalnye slova, sushchestvuyushchie v sovremennom uzbekskom literaturnom zyyke, a similar vvodnye slova, big skhodstva va razlichiya. Examples privedeny v slachae ispolzovaniya hurozhestvennyx proizvedeniy.

Key words: category word, modal word, vvodnoe word, obratnaya svyaz, relationship, morphology, syntax, vocabulary, predlozhenie, analysis, punctuation, communication.

Introductory words are words that add confidence, suspicion, and problematic meanings to the speaker’s opinion.

The introduction is always separated from other parts of the sentence by a comma (,).

In the analysis, the input words are represented by a wavy line below the straight line.

Introductory words can be used in different places of the sentence. In writing, if it comes at the beginning of the sentence, after the introductory words, if it comes in the middle, then both occurrences of the introductory word, if it comes after the sentence, then a comma is placed before the introductory word.

Modal words are words that express the attitude of the speaker to the expressed idea (such as trust, suspicion, pity). Modal words are separated from other words in the sentence by commas. Meaning types of modal words. Modal words mean confidence, doubt, joy, regret, order of thought, control.

Meanings of modal words

Modal words



Of course, no doubt 

4) originally grew out of a lexeme with the composition “noun lexeme + attributive form builder” and was not divided into meaningful parts: шуба + сиз = without a doubt, шкла + ли = like (it is difficult to pronounce the kll sounds in the next example because the sound i is included in the range of kl sounds) like ;

5) originally formed from a lexeme and a form-forming morpheme, growing as a unit of the modal category, the form-forming morphemes lost their grammatical essence and became inseparable. Such modals are originally:

a) has the composition of “lexeme + unit number + III person relative + main agreement indicator”: chama+I+si+Ø II=chamasi,

like content+ØI+i+ØII=content.

b) having the composition of “lexeme+unit number+place or output agreement affix”: truth+ØI+da=in truth, truth+ØI+dan=truly like (The next modal is often used with a predicate in the form of truth );

d) “lexeme+ singular number+third person accusative+locative or derivational affix has the composition”: asl+ØI+i+da=actually, aft+ØI+i+dan=apparently.

2. Derived from lexemes of a category other than nouns:

1) The adjective grew out of the lexeme form: like natural;


3) Tajik has grown from the verb form: in this case, hoh -‘ista’, no -‘-ma’, from the verb form -‘ista – istama’ in Uzbek at the end of both parts h sound changed to y sound, the first o sound in the second part changed to a sound: hoh-nohoh → hoynakhoy; there was also a serious change in meaning: ‘willingness’ → ‘tusmol’;

Pure and functional modal words. Modal words are also divided into pure modal words and functional modal words. Only modal words are considered pure modal words: indeed, indeed, unfortunately, attang, of course, apparently, first of all, so, if only, for example.

Such modal words are used in the modal sense, apparently, apparently, in general, perhaps, clearly, undoubtedly.

Modals mainly grew out of the unity of categories based on the development of meaning:

1. The noun grew out of the lexeme form: these are the types of modals. In this modal:

1) is considered equal to the root lexeme form: as possible;

2) it is equal to the derivational form of the original Arabic lexeme and is considered a root from the point of view of the Uzbek language: like (haqiqat+an);

3) originally consists of a preposition and a lexeme, and is considered basic from the point of view of the Uzbek language: darhaqiqat (consists of the preposition dar in Tajik and the lexeme of truth borrowed from the Arabic language, and is defined as lexeme form of analytic grammatical form in Tajik as dar truth . is written), by the way (This modal is also such a help: preposition dar+Arabic case’ – ‘in fact’) as well. The archaic form of filhaqiqat is from the Arabic preposition fi, the article of definiteness al and the lexeme of truth: fi al haqiqat → filhaqiqat;

4) Grown from the conjunction: perhaps.

3. The compound noun is formed as a result of ellipsis (dropping) of the participle: self – as from itself.

4. The combination is formed by the transformation of the form into a modal: in any case, as in any case.

If a modal unit grows on the basis of a category unit, in such cases, homonymy usually occurs

Introduction words are considered as one part of the introduction, and introductions are divided into three types:

1. Introduction

2. Introductory compound

3. Introduction.

Introductory words can never be part of a sentence and do not enter into any relationship with other parts.

Entries have great stylistic, expressive-emotional possibilities. Introductions are rarely used in a formal manner, as they are mostly subjective assessments. Such words increase expressiveness and effectiveness of speech.

One of the main differences between a modal word and an introductory word is that a modal word is studied in morphology, while an introductory word is studied in syntax. For example, in the exercises or assignments, if it is said to “identify the word groups in the following sentence, it is considered a modal word. For example, let’s take the sentence, first of all, a person must be a believer. We will analyze this sentence morphologically, that is, Let’s break it down into categories:

The introduction is not a word, a noun, an adjective, a verb


   First of all, if it is said to analyze the sentence “A person must be a believer”, i.e. identify and analyze the parts of the sentence, it is analyzed in the form of INTRODUCTORY WORD (not modal word), NOUN, ADJECTIVE, VERB. Distinguishing them mainly helps the applicants in solving the tests.

Modal words are found in all works of art and are used very widely. Below, for each meaning of modal words, modals taken from various works of art are described one by one:

1. Confidence: These are my dreams, of course.

2. Suspicion: Maybe, like me, he wants to walk long and hard to never be separated.

3. Confirmation: In the evening, Murad Ali’s condition worsened, he called his sister at night and said: “Let me tell you what I have to say about my medicine.”

4. Conclusion: He has never slept under a blanket, so he does not know what a thin white petticoat is.

5. Order of thought: First of all, if it was his father’s wish, then he apologized for his rudeness.

6. Proof of opinion: “For example, I don’t eat,” he said coldly.

  “Look, I didn’t know you were full.”

   This modal word is often widely used in dialogues.

7. Pity: Well, attang, I wish I could say that it works there too.

8. Joy: Good luck, Father hasn’t left for the trip yet. He is currently in Fergana.

9. Unfortunately, you did not do well in the exam.


1. Abdullah Qahhor. Love (short story). Tashkent Publishing House of Literature and Art named after Gafur Ghulom – 1998.

2. Rasul Hamzatov. My Dagestan. The first book. Publishing House of the National Library of Uzbekistan named after Alisher Navoi. Tashkent-2008.

3. Otkir Hashimov. Four pillars of life. Short stories and stories. Merius, Tashkent-2018.

4. Shavkat Rahmatullayev. Modern Uzbek literary language (textbook). Tashkent. “University” – 2006.

5. Fame. Gold is stainless. Chief editorial office of “Sharq” publishing-printing concern. Tashkent – 1995.

6. Chingiz Aitmatov. Sarvkomat Dilbarim (short story). Chief editorial office of “Sharq” publishing-printing joint-stock company, Tashkent – 2009.

7. 5th grade mother tongue textbook. Completed fourth edition. Tashkent “Spirituality” 2015.

8. 7th grade mother tongue textbook. Completed and revised 4th edition. Tashkent “Spirituality” 2017.

9. 8th grade mother tongue textbook. Fourth edition. Cholpon publishing house – creative house of printing, Tashkent – 2019.

10. library

Norsafarova, daughter of Nilufar Boybori, was born on April 24, 2004 in Dehkanabad district of Kashkadarya region. At the moment, she is a student of the Uzbek language and literature department of the Shahrisabz State Pedagogical Institute, Faculty of Languages. Norsafarova Nilufar has been actively participating in many international and republican competitions. In 2023, she became the owner of the “Innovative Promoter” badge.

In addition, she is currently actively involved in volunteer work at the institute. She is the author of such articles as “History of the formation of proverbs”, “Palindromes or words of the heart”, “Specific features of an epic work”, “The role and importance of connected clauses, separated clauses, impulses and introductions in a sentence”. These articles were published by foreign publishers and in the prestigious publishing houses of our republic.

Shahrisabz State Pedagogical Institute

Department of Uzbek language and literature

       2nd grade student Norsafarova Nilufar


                                                    Phone: +99 894 858 24 12

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