Essay from Numonova Fariza

ANNOTATION: Amir Temur's life, marches to China, family, election as "GREAT AMIR", connection with Islam, descendants, marches to IRAN AND CAUCASUS. 

KEY WORDS: China, "GREAT EMIR", Islamic religion, statesman. Amir Temur, Temur, Temurbek (full name Amir Temur ibn Amir Taragay ibn Amir Barqul) (April 9, 1336 - February 18, 1405) is really a great statesman of the century, a great Turkish general, strong, Mrs. Takin was the mother of Amir Temur, the founder of the centralized state, patron of science and culture. His father, Amir Taragai, was considered one of the elders of the Turkic Barlos clan and a notable leader of the Chigatoy clan. His great ancestors ruled in Kesh region. 

Therefore, Amir Temur's father, Amir Taragai, was invited once a year to the congress of elders of the country called by the khan on the banks of the Ili River, and he regularly participated in such gatherings. At the same time, according to Sharafuddin Yazdi's emphasis, he was "mushfiq and kind to the ulama, sulaha, and muttaqi, and used to go to their gatherings...". Taragaijan Piri Shamsuddin Kulol was especially deeply respected. Later, sheikh Kulol Amir was Temur's elder. Taragaybek died in 1405. Amir Temur had an older sister, Qutlugh Turkon, and a younger sister, Shirinbeka. They died before Timur and were buried in the mausoleums of the Shahi Zinda complex in Samarkand. "According to Mu'izz al-Ansab, Temur had three more brothers: Djuki, Olim Shaykh and Suyurgatmish. Temur had one uncle, his name was Balta. 

Amir Temur's youth was spent in Kesh. When he was seven years old, his father sent him to study. Amir Temur's youth from his childhood, under the supervision of special trainers, he was engaged in horse riding, hunting, archery, and various other exercises and military games. At the same time, Amir Temur grew up to be a skilled rider who can sort out vultures and a brave horse. and he was perceptive and extremely intelligent, he quickly understood the abilities, virtues, especially sincerity in people. Because of this, he was able to attract loyal friends from among his peers even in his teenage years. Idiku Temur, Saifuddinbek, Hindushah, Qarkara, etc.) gathered, trained together, took part in competitions, gradually became skilled and united into a military group, forming a military unit. Later, they rose to the rank of commander in the army of Amir Temur. 

Supporting Amir Temur's activities, he presented him with a big drum, a tabl and a yalov, a symbol of supreme authority. Undoubtedly, this event had great political significance. Because it was a symbol of royalty. Amir Temur understood this well. That is why, before reaching Balkh, he held a council with the emir and his followers in Orpuz region. Suyurgatmish, a descendant of Genghis Khan, was placed on the throne of the kingdom of Movarounnahr by the will of the majority and according to the laws of that time. Until the army of Amir Temur reached Balkh, new forces joined him along the way. At the same time, most of the emirs left Amir Husayn. Amir Husayn's troops were defeated in the battle, after a two-day siege, on April 10, 1370, Balkh sh. Amir surrendered to Temur. Amir Husayn was captured and executed. 

After this victory, Amir Temur married Sarai Mulkhanim, the daughter of Kazan Khan, the Genghisian ruler of Movarounnahr. Amir Temur received the title of "Koragon" i.e. "son-in-law of the Khan" due to his marriage to the Khan's daughter.On April 11, 1361, in the congress held with the participation of all the begs, emirs, governors of the regions and districts, Sayyids (godsons) of Termiz, as well as Amir Temur's comrades-in-arms and elder Sayyid Baraka, who had been with him since his youth, according to tradition, Suyurgatmish Khan from Genghis Khan was declared the ruler of the country. Amir Temur managed the power himself, he managed the power in the regions through his sons, grandsons and close amirs. Samarkand became the capital of Amir Temur's state, and in the summer of the same year, the city wall and fortress were restored, palaces and palaces were built. 

RELATIONSHIP WITH ISLAM 

Timur was a Sunni Muslim, probably belonging to the Naqshbandi Sufi, Hanafi school, which was influential in Mawarinnat. His chief official religious adviser and mentor was the Hanafi scholar Abd al-Jabbar Khorazmi. In Termiz, he was influenced by the teacher of Balkh leader Sayyid Baraka, who was buried with Temur in Gur-Amir. Hazrat Timur was known for his high regard for Ali and Ahl al-Bayt and has been recognized by various scholars for his pro-Shia stance. However, he also chastised the Shias for desecrating the memories of the Companions. 

Timur is also known to have attacked Shiites on the pretext of Sunnism, and at other times to have attacked Sunnis on religious grounds. Conversely, while Timur praised the Seljuk sultan Ahmad Sanjar for attacking the Ismailis at Alamut, Timur's own attack on the Ismailis at Anjudan was equally brutal. 

IRANIAN AND CAUCASIAN MARCHES 

However, Amir Temur was not satisfied with this. Soon he set himself the goal of marching on neighboring countries and peoples, subduing them and establishing a great centralized kingdom. During this period, the socio-political situation in the Golden Horde, Khorasan and Iran was very favorable for him. Amir Temur started his military campaign from Khurasan. In 1381, he captured Herat. Sarakhs, Jam and Qawsiya cities surrendered without a fight. Khurasan, especially its capital Herat, was strategically important and served as a bridge to Iran, Iraq, Syria and other countries. During the years 1381-84, Amir Temur occupied a large part of Iran. First (1381) Kalot, Turshiz and Sabzavor, then (1383) the fortresses of Zireh, Zova, Farah and Bust of Seistan, and in 1384 the cities of Amul, Sori, Sultania and Tabriz of Astrobad region and Azerbaijan were conquered. 

MARCHES TO CHINA 

After Amir Temur returned to Samarkand from Asia Minor, on November 27, 1404, he left Samarkand with 200,000 troops for a trip to China. However, Amir Temur's death in Otror (February 18, 1405) prevented the march on China. It is known that Amir Temur died in 1405 due to a severe cold. However, there are other reasons that accelerated the death of Amir Temur. According to Ibn Arabshah (written in 1436), as a result of a severe cold, "Temur fell ill with ibrida (a disease that weakens the body due to cold), and the doctors prepared for him to taste khamr arag, which contained warming substances, aromas and berries. 

According to the historian, Khondamir, Amir Temur's death Vodka prepared by doctors as a medicine made it faster. Khondamir writes in his work "Habib us-siyar": "...the owner encouraged vodka on this basis, ordered to bring him ore, although it looked like water, it was like fire in terms of quality. His Highness Sahibqiron drank vodka for two days and nights, but did not eat at all. That's why there was a change in the client. The doctors considered this change to be a sign of evil. They gave him a glass or two again, his temperature calmed down a little, but it seems that the wine affected his body and nature, and his temperature rose again. The owner's health has deteriorated.

At that time, this drink was used only in medicine, and its intoxicating function was not mastered. Hafiz Abru, the historian of that time, also writes that Temur's illness was aggravated and vodka was consumed in large quantities.[2] Although the news of Amir Temur's death was kept secret at first, soon this unpleasant news spread throughout the country. Amir Temur's body was brought to Samarkand and buried.

Numonova Fariza 
8th grade student of                    IDUM school 1,                Samarkan city. 

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